Bridgnorth Tae Kwon-Do: Required Theory: 1st Dan to 2nd Dan

Alongside your practical martial arts tuition at Bridgnorth Tae Kwon-Do, students are expected to learn theory and this is tested at the end of every grading. The emphasis is on the student to take responsibility for their own learning; but we have provided these theory sheets to assist and we are always happy to help with your learning or any questions you may have. In terms of timing for when is best to start your theory, we would always say ASAP! It is never too early or too late to start – the main thing is to give it your best effort in a way that suits you. Some students have created their own visual aids, drawn pictures, found ways to memorise dates, etc. No doubt you will learn more than the examiner will test you on – please don’t be disheartened by this. Your time spent on theory is never wasted. You need to know this information to perform at the highest level in the class; and you will be tested on all aspects of the syllabus from white belt onwards, during your Black Belt gradings.

(Korean terms are in brackets and italics).           

Significance of Colours on Belts

BLACK is opposite of white, therefore signifies maturity and proficiency in Tae Kwon-Do. It also indicates imperviousness to darkness and fear.

Pattern Meanings

  • Kwang Gae is named after the famous Kwang Gae Toh Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo dynasty, who regained all of the lost territory and the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represents the expansion and recovery of the lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two digits of the year 391AD, when he came to the throne.
  • Po Eun is the pseudonym of the loyal subject Chong-Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and whose poem ‘I would not serve a second master though I may be crucified a hundred times’ is known to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram represents his unbending loyalty to his King and country towards the end of the Koryo dynasty.
  • Ge Baek is named after General Ge Baek, a great General in the Baek Je dynasty (660AD). The pattern represents his severe and strict military discipline.

You will be expected to know the interpretations for the above Black Belt patterns, and all of the colour belt patterns. In addition you must research the deeper interpretations and meanings behind these definitions.

Movements (Kwang Gae)

  • Close stance: (moa sogi)
  • Walking stance: (gunnun sogi)
  • L-stance: (niunja sogi)
  • Rearfoot stance: (dwitbal sogi)
  • Low stance: (nachuo sogi)
  • Sitting stance: (annun sogi)
  • Palm high hooking block: (sonbadak nopunde golcho makgi)
  • Knifehand low guarding block: (sonkal najunde daebi makgi)
  • Knifehand high guarding block: (sonkal nopunde daebi makgi)
  • Palm upward block: (sonbadak ollyo makgi)
  • Knifehand low front block: (sonkal najunde ap makgi)
  • Palm pressing block: (sonbadak noollo makgi)
  • Double forearm middle block: (doo palmok kaunde makgi)
  • Forearm low reverse block: (palmok najunde bandae makgi)
  • Knifehand middle guarding block: (sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)
  • Upset punch: (dwijibo jirugi)
  • Pressing kick: (noollo chagi)
  • Side piercing kick: (yop cha jirugi)
  • Knifehand high inward strike: (sonkal nopunde anuro taerigi)
  • Sidefist downward strike: (yop joomuk naeryo taerigi)
  • Backfist high side strike: (dung joomuk nopunde yop taerigi)
  • Flat fingertip high thrust: (opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)
  • Twin fist vertical punch: (sang joomuk sewo jirugi)
  • Twin fist upset punch: (sang joomuk dwijibo jirugi)
  • Middle front snap kick: (kaunde apcha busigi)
  • Forefist high punch: (ap joomuk nopunde jirugi)

Movements (Po Eun)

  • L-stance: (niunja sogi)
  • One-leg stance: (waebel sogi)
  • Sitting stance: (annun sogi)
  • X-stance: (kyocha sogi)
  • Close-stance: (moa sogi)
  • Forearm middle guarding block: (palmok kaunde daebi makgi)
  • Forefist pressing block: (ap joomuk noollo makgi)
  • Inner forearm side-front block: (an palmok yopap makgi)
  • Inner forearm middle wedging block: (an palmok kaunde hechyo makgi)
  • Outer forearm low front block: (bakat palmok najunde ap makgi)
  • U-shape grasp: (digutja japgi)
  • Reverse knifehand low guarding block: (sonkal dung najunde daebi makgi)
  • Upward punch: (ollyo jirugi)
  • Pressing kick: (noollo chagi)
  • Knifehand side strike: (sonkal yop taerigi)
  • Angle punch: (kyocha jirugi)
  • Back elbow thrust: (dwit palkup tulgi)
  • Front punch: (ap joomuk jirugi)
  • Horizontal punch: (soopyong jirugi)
  • Twin elbow horizontal thrust: (sang soopyong palkup jirugi)
  • Backfist side-back strike: (dung joomuk yopdwi taerigi)

Movements (Ge Baek)

  • L-stance: (niunja sogi)
  • Walking stance: (gunnun sogi)
  • Bending stance: (goburyo sogi)
  • Sitting stance: (annun sogi)
  • Low stance: (nachuo sogi)
  • X-knifehand checking block: (kyocha sonkal mumchau makgi)
  • Outer forearm rising block: (bakat palmok chookyo makgi)
  • Outer forearm low block: (bakat palmok najunde makgi)
  • Double arc-hand high block: (doo bandalson nopunde makgi)
  • Forearm guarding block: (palmok daebi makgi)
  • Palm scooping block: (sonbadak duro makgi)
  • Knifehand middle guarding block: (sonkal kaunde daebi makgi)
  • 9-shape block: (gutja makgi)
  • Knifehand low outward block: (sonkal najunde bakuro makgi)
  • Double forearm high block: (doo palmok nopunde makgi)
  • Reverse knifehand low guarding block: (sonkal dung najunde daebi makgi)
  • Knifehand low guarding block: (sonkal najunde daebi makgi)
  • Outer forearm W-shape block: (bakat palmok san makgi)
  • Low twisting kick: (najunde bituro chagi)
  • Forefist middle front punch: (ap joomuk jirugi)
  • Backfist front strike: (dun joomuk ap taerigi)
  • Low side-front snap kick: (najunde yop apcha busigi)
  • Flat fingertip high thrust: (opun sonkut nopunde tulgi)
  • Middle side piercing kick: (kaunde yop cha jirugi)
  • Middle turning kick: (kaunde dollyo chagi)
  • Flying side piercing kick: (twimyo yopcha jirugi)
  • Twin vertical fist punch: (sang sewo jirugi)
  • Upset punch: (dwijibo jirugi)
  • Front elbow strike: (ap palkup taerigi)
  • Reverse knifehand high front strike: (sonkal dung nopunde ap taerigi)
  • Middle knuckle fist middle punch: (joongi joomuk kaunde jirugi)

Application of Movements

You MUST show that you understand what the movements in the patterns could be used for in a real-life scenario. For example you should think about:

  • Why do we use knifehand guard as well as a closed fist guard? What is the advantage of an open hand technique?
  • What is twin forearm block for?
  • Why do we pull the reaction hand back to the body in the second move of Won-Hyo?
  • What is stick-shape / U-shape block for?
  • What is flat fingertip thrust for?
  • What is the difference between a scooping block and an upward palm-heel block?

Try to think ‘outside of the text book’…we recommend you give application some thought, practice the applications and then discuss it with your Instructor!


  • Why did you start Tae Kwon-Do?
  • What type of sparrer are you? (Be prepared for your answer to be challenged too!)
  • What is the difference between a colour belt and a black belt?
  • What is the difference between a 1st and 2nd Dan?
  • Why do Black Belts have a black trim around their dobok collars?
  • What are the first two moves of Choong Moo used for?
  • Why do we chamber?
  • When would you use your toes to perform a kick?
  • Name 5 patterns containing a backfist.
  • Name 3 types of fingertip thrust.
  • Name 3 patterns containing releases.
  • What is the difference between dwit and dung?
  • Why do we learn pattern meanings?
  • Why do we pull the reaction hand back to the hip?
  • What are your strengths? (Prepare to be challenged on this!)
  • What are your weaknesses? (Prepare to be challenged on this!)
  • How do you intend to improve? (Prepare to be challenged on this!)
  • What are the purposes of stances?
  • Name 3 patterns where we do a bending stance.
  • Describe the history of Tae Kwon-Do.
  • How do you know if a stance is a left or a right stance?
  • Why is there a jump in Toi-Gye and Yul-Gok?
  • What will you do if you get promoted to black belt?
  • Name 3 kicks that use the heel.
  • How have you changed since you were a white belt?
  • How would you teach someone to do a walking stance?
  • Why do we do slow motion movements?
  • Name 5 vital spots on the upper body.
  • (Philtrum, mandibular joint, jaw, eyes, Adam’s apple)
  • Name 5 vital spots on the middle body.
  • (Sternum, solar plexus, kidneys, floating ribs, stomach/abdomen)
  • Name 5 vital spots on the lower body.
  • (Coccyx, groin, instep, knee, shin)
  • If a beginner asked why a blue belt was beating a black belt in sparring, what would you say?
  • Why do we do a power test?
  • Where do you see yourself in Tae Kwon-Do in five years?
  • Why do we twist the fist when we punch?
  • How could you help your Instructor in the class?
  • What does the last sentence of the meaning of Choong Moo actually mean?
  • What makes a good Tae Kwon-Do student?
  • How would you go about recruiting new members to your Tae Kwon-Do school?
  • If you had to suggest a 6th tenet what would it be, and why?
  • What is your favourite pattern and why?
  • Imagine you have a group of children who just want to spar all the time. How do you explain the other aspects of Tae Kwon-Do and why we need to do them?
  • Name 3 uses of the fingertips.
  • What does indomitable spirit mean?
  • What is Neo-Confucianism?
  • Demonstrate a reverse punch in walking stance and in L-stance.
  • What is Buddhism?
  • What does Tae Kwon-Do mean to you?
  • What is the difference between Tae Kwon-Do as a sport, and an art?
  • What can you offer your instructor if you become a black belt?
  • Why do we do one-step sparring?
  • What does the black trim on a black belt dobok signify?
  • Name all the stances you know – in Korean.
  • Name all the parts of the hand and foot – in Korean.
  • When was the GTI formed?
  • Describe how to do a side kick without moving.
  • What are the names of the GTI Committee?
  • What is the difference between the fixed stance side punch movement in Won-Yho and Hwa-Rang?
  • Why do we learn Korean history/theory?
  • What is the definition of power / how is power created?

Etc, etc, etc!

*** The GTI Handbook contains more detailed theory information and is available to purchase from your Instructor at Bridgnorth Tae Kwon-Do.

The examiner may ask any question, not limited to those on these pages.

You must ALWAYS revise theory from previous belts…ESPECIALLY for a Dan Grading.***